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Tuesday, August 9, 2016

Top 10 Tricky Java Interview Questions With Answers.

Top 10 Tricky Java Interview Questions With Answers. Here Are Some Tricky Java Interview Questions For You. These Questions Are Most Frequently Asked Questions In All Java Interviews. These Java Interview Questions Are For Fresher's And Experienced As Well. 

What does the following Java program print?
public class Test {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println(Math.min(Double.MIN_VALUE, 0.0d));
    }
}


This question is tricky because unlike the Integer, where MIN_VALUE is negative, both the MAX_VALUE and MIN_VALUE of the Double class are positive numbers. The Double.MIN_VALUE is 2^(-1074), a double constant whose magnitude is the least among all double values. So unlike the obvious answer, this program will print 0.0 because Double.MIN_VALUE is greater than 0. I have asked this question to Java developer having experience up to 3 to 5 years and surprisingly almost 70% candidate got it wrong.

What will happen if you put return statement or System.exit () on try or catch block? Will finally block execute?

This is a very popular tricky Java question and it's tricky because many programmers think that no matter what, but the finally block will always execute. This question challenge that concept by putting a return statement in the try or catch block or calling System.exit() from try or catch block. Answer of this tricky question in Java is that finally block will execute even if you put a return statement in the try block or catch block but finally block won't run if you call System.exit() from try or catch block.

Can you override a private or static method in Java?

Another popular Java tricky question, As I said method overriding is a good topic to ask trick questions in Java. Anyway, you can not override a private or static method in Java, if you create a similar method with same return type and same method arguments in child class then it will hide the superclass method, this is known as method hiding.
Similarly, you cannot override a private method in sub class because it's not accessible there, what you do is create another private method with the same name in the child class. See Can you override a private method in Java or more details.


What do the expression 1.0 / 0.0 will return? will it throw Exception? any compile time error?

This is another tricky question from Double class. Though Java developer knows about the double primitive type and Double class, while doing floating point arithmetic they don't pay enough attention to Double.INFINITY, NaN, and -0.0 and other rules that govern the arithmetic calculations involving them. The simple answer to this question is that it will not throw ArithmeticExcpetion and return Double.INFINITY.

Also, note that the comparison x == Double.NaN always evaluates to false, even if x itself is a NaN. To test if x is a NaN, one should use the method call Double.isNaN(x) to check if given number is NaN or not. If you know SQL, this is very close to NULL there.

Does Java support multiple inheritances?

This is the trickiest question in Java if C++ can support direct multiple inheritances than why not Java is the argument Interviewer often give. Answer of this question is much more subtle then it looks like, because Java does support multiple inheritances of Type by allowing an interface to extend other interfaces, what Java doesn't support is multiple inheritances of implementation. This distinction also gets blur because of default method of Java 8, which now provides Java, multiple inheritances of behavior as well. See why multiple inheritances are not supported in Java to answer this tricky Java question.

What will happen if we put a key object in a HashMap which is already there?
Each bucket contains a linked list of Map.Entry object, which contains both Key and Value. Now Java will take the Key object from each entry and compare with this new key using equals() method, if that return true then value object in that entry will be replaced by new value. See How HashMap works in Java for more tricky Java questions from HashMap.
What does the following Java program print?
public class Test {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        char[] chars = new char[] {'\u0097'};
        String str = new String(chars);
        byte[] bytes = str.getBytes();
        System.out.println(Arrays.toString(bytes));
    }
}


Answer: The trickiness of this question lies on character encoding and how String to byte array conversion works. In this program, we are first creating a String from a character array, which just has one character '\u0097', after that we are getting the byte array from that String and printing that byte. Since \u0097 is within the 8-bit range of byte primitive type, it is reasonable to guess that the str.getBytes() call will return a byte array that contains one element with a value of -105 ((byte) 0x97).

However, that's not what the program prints and that's why this question is tricky. As a matter of fact, the output of the program is operating system and locale dependent. On a Windows XP with the US locale, the above program prints [63], if you run this program on Linux or Solaris, you will get different values.

To answer this question correctly, you need to know about how Unicode characters are represented in Java char values and in Java strings, and what role character encoding plays in String.getBytes().

In simple word, to convert a string to a byte array, Java iterate through all the characters that the string represents and turn each one into a number of bytes and finally put the bytes together. The rule that maps each Unicode character into a byte array is called a character encoding. So It's possible that if same character encoding is not used during both encoding and decoding then retrieved value may not be correct. When we call str.getBytes() without specifying a character encoding scheme, the JVM uses the default character encoding of the platform to do the job.

The default encoding scheme is operating system and locale dependent. On Linux, it is UTF-8 and on Windows with a US locale, the default encoding is Cp1252. This explains the output we get from running this program on Windows machines with a US locale. No matter which character encoding scheme is used, Java will always translate Unicode characters not recognized by the encoding to 63, which represents the character U+003F (the question mark, ?) in all encodings.


If a method throws NullPointerException in the superclass, can we override it with a method which throws RuntimeException?
One more tricky Java questions from the overloading and overriding concept. The answer is you can very well throw superclass of RuntimeException in overridden method, but you can not do same if its checked Exception. See Rules of method overriding in Java for more details.

What is the issue with following implementation of compareTo() method in Java
public int compareTo(Object o){
   Employee emp = (Employee) o;
   return this.id - e.id;
}

where an id is an integer number.

Well, three is nothing wrong in this Java question until you guarantee that id is always positive. This Java question becomes tricky when you can't guarantee that id is positive or negative. the tricky part is, If id becomes negative than subtraction may overflow and produce an incorrect result. See How to override compareTo method in Java for the complete answer of this Java tricky question for an experienced programmer.

How do you ensure that N thread can access N resources without deadlock?

The key point here is ordering, if you acquire resources in a particular order and release resources in the reverse order you can prevent deadlock. See how to avoid deadlock in Java for a sample code example.

Consider the following Java code snippet, which is initializing two variables and both are not volatile, and two threads T1 and T2 are modifying these values as following, both are not synchronized
int x = 0;
boolean bExit = false;

Thread 1 (not synchronized)
x = 1;
bExit = true;

Thread 2 (not synchronized)
if (bExit == true)
System.out.println("x=" + x);
Now tell us, is it possible for Thread 2 to print “x=0”?


Answer of this question is Yes, It's possible that thread T2 may print x=0.Why? because without any instruction to compiler e.g. synchronized or volatile, bExit=true might come before x=1 in compiler reordering. Also, x=1 might not become visible in Thread 2, so Thread 2 will load x=0. Now, how do you fix it?

What is difference between CyclicBarrier and CountDownLatch in Java

only been introduced from Java 5. The main difference between both of them is that you can reuse CyclicBarrier even if Barrier is broken, but you can not reuse CountDownLatch in Java. See CyclicBarrier vs CountDownLatch in Java for more differences.

What is the difference between StringBuffer and StringBuilder in Java?


StringBuilder in Java was introduced in JDK 1.5 and the only difference between both of them is that StringBuffer methods e.g. length(), capacity() or append() are synchronized while corresponding methods in StringBuilder are not synchronized.
Because of this fundamental difference, concatenation of String using StringBuilder is faster than StringBuffer. Actually, it's considered the bad practice to use StringBuffer anymore, because, in almost 99% scenario, you perform string concatenation on the same thread. See StringBuilder vs StringBuffer for more differences.

Can you access a non-static variable in the static context?

No, you can not access a non-static variable from the static context in Java. If you try, it will give compile time error. This is actually a common problem beginner in Java face when they try to access instance variable inside the main method. Because main is static in Java, and instance variables are non-static, you can not access instance variable inside main. See, why you can not access a non-static variable from static method to learn more about this tricky Java questions.

 

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